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Unlocking the mystery :The ABCs of Vitamin B12 deficiency


Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is an essential nutrient required for various bodily processes, including red blood cell formation, brain function, and DNA synthesis. Inadequate consumption or absorption of vitamin B12 can lead to a deficiency. This write-up aims to shed light on the causes, symptoms, and effective prevention strategies for vitamin B12 deficiency.

Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency:

1. Inadequate Dietary Intake: The primary cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is a lack of consumption of foods containing sufficient amounts of vitamin B12, such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products. Vegans and vegetarians are at a higher risk due to their limited intake of animal-derived products.

2. Malabsorption Disorders: Several medical conditions can impair the absorption of vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract. These include pernicious anemia, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and gastric bypass surgery.

3. Atrophic gastritis: This condition, mostly seen in older adults, hinders the production of stomach acid and intrinsic factor, a protein required for vitamin B12 absorption.

4. Medications: Long-term use of certain medications, such as proton pump inhibitors, histamine-2 receptor antagonists, and metformin, can interfere with vitamin B12 absorption.

Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency:

1. Anemia: Deficiency of vitamin B12 often leads to megaloblastic anemia, characterized by the production of large, immature red blood cells.

2. Fatigue and General Weakness: Individuals with vitamin B12 deficiency may experience constant fatigue, weakness, and a lack of energy.

3. Neurological Symptoms: Vitamin B12 plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of the nervous system. Deficiency can result in symptoms like tingling or numbness in the hands and feet, difficulty walking, memory loss, and depression.

4. Digestive Issues: Some people may experience stomach upset, loss of appetite, constipation, or diarrhea due to inadequate vitamin B12 intake.

Prevention of Vitamin B12 Deficiency:

1. Balanced Diet: Consuming a varied diet that includes animal-derived products, such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy, is the easiest way to ensure an adequate intake of vitamin B12. For vegetarians and vegans, fortified cereals, soy products, and nutritional yeast can be good sources of vitamin B12.

2. Supplements: If dietary intake is insufficient, supplements containing vitamin B12 can be beneficial, especially for individuals at a higher risk of deficiency.

3. Regular Check-ups: Regular medical check-ups can help identify any potential deficiencies or underlying conditions that may hinder vitamin B12 absorption. Early detection and appropriate treatment are essential.

4. Addressing Underlying Conditions: If an individual has a malabsorption disorder or other medical conditions affecting vitamin B12 absorption, proper medical management and treatment can help prevent deficiency.

5. Lifestyle Considerations: Individuals who have undergone gastric bypass surgery or take long-term medications known to affect vitamin B12 absorption should consult with their healthcare provider to determine appropriate supplementation or alternative treatments.


Vitamin B12 deficiency can result in serious health consequences if left untreated. Knowing the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and implementing preventive measures, such as a balanced diet, supplementation, and regular check-ups, can significantly reduce the risk and help maintain optimal vitamin B12 levels. It is always advisable to consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice and guidance.

Dr Kriti Kinhal

Clinical Nutritionist & Health Coach

7975194417 or 7483153977

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